References

Cunningham F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Dashe JS, Hoffman BL, Casey BM, Spong CY. Williams Obstetrics, 25e; 2018. Available at: https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1918&sectionid=150960110.

Leeman L, Spearman M, Rogers R. Repair of Obstetric Perineal Lacerations. Available at: https://calgaryfamilymedicine.ca/residency/dox/container/OBS-RepairOfPerinealLacerations-CurriculumResourcePrereading.pdf.

Netter’s Anatomy.

Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS): Prevention, Recognition, and Repair. SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline No. 330, December 2015. Available at: jogc.com/article/S1701-2163(16)30081-0/pdf.

Williams Gynecology 3rd Edition.

Videos:

Perineal repair: https://youtu.be/8AV3Qpghfa0.

Beef tongue simulation for 4th degree tears: https://youtu.be/pJ0GG635M1Q.  

Perineal tear repair 3rd degree: https://youtu.be/oZW2KSuD800.  

Perineal tear repair 4th degree: https://youtu.be/qXzZUqXFPDE; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8V4_ESlmgFg&ab.

Updated on November 2, 2021

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