Cunningham F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Dashe JS, Hoffman BL, Casey BM, Spong CY. Williams Obstetrics, 25e; 2018. Available at:

Leeman L, Spearman M, Rogers R. Repair of Obstetric Perineal Lacerations. Available at:

Netter’s Anatomy.

Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS): Prevention, Recognition, and Repair. SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline No. 330, December 2015. Available at:

Williams Gynecology 3rd Edition.


Perineal repair:

Beef tongue simulation for 4th degree tears:  

Perineal tear repair 3rd degree:  

Perineal tear repair 4th degree:;

Next Topic (Uterine Rupture)

Return to Homepage

Updated on February 16, 2022

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles